Studies on the adoption of innovations by companies generally include micro-level and meso-level variables in order to explain a company's receptiveness to innovations. This study adds to the literature by investigating the role of macro-level variables (i.e. national culture) to explain differences in innovation penetration levels and adoption decisions by companies across national cultures. A large-scale empirical study was carried out in 10 European countries concerning the adoption of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software by mid size companies. Results indicate variables describing national cultural to have a strong, significant influence on the innovation penetration and adoption. In addition, we find adoption models including micro-, meso- and macro-level variables to perform significantly better in explaining innovation adoption across countries than adoption models that only include micro- and meso-level variables.

ERP, cross-cultural, innovation, organizational behavior
Statistical Decision Theory; Operations Research (jel C44), Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting (jel M), Marketing (jel M31), Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives (jel O31)
Erasmus Research Institute of Management
ERIM Report Series Research in Management
Copyright 2003, Y.M. Van Everdingen, E. Waarts, This report in the ERIM Report Series Research in Management is intended as a means to communicate the results of recent research to academic colleagues and other interested parties. All reports are considered as preliminary and subject to possibly major revisions. This applies equally to opinions expressed, theories developed, and data used. Therefore, comments and suggestions are welcome and should be directed to the authors.
Erasmus Research Institute of Management

van Everdingen, Y.M, & Waarts, E. (2003). A multi-country study of the adoption of ERP systems (No. ERS-2003-019-MKT). ERIM Report Series Research in Management. Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Retrieved from