Background: The adjuvant activity of air pollution particles on allergic airway sensitization is well known, but the cellular mechanisms underlying this adjuvant potential are not clear. Objective: We sough to study the role of dendritic cells and the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in the adjuvant activity of ultrafine carbon black particles (CBP). Methods: The proliferation of CFSE-labeled DO11.10 CD4 cells was studied after intranasal exposure to particles and ovalbumin (OVA). Next the frequency of myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells and their expression of CD80 and CD86 were studied in the peribronchial lymph nodes (PBLNs). The expression of costimulatory molecules was also studied on bone marrow-derived mDCs after exposure to CBPs in vitro, and the importance of costimulation in CBP adjuvant activity was assessed by using CD80/CD86-deficient mice or cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4)-Ig in vivo. Results: Our data show that CBPs plus OVA caused proliferation of DO11.10 CD4 cells and high levels of cytokine production in the PBLNs. Furthermore, the combined CBP plus OVA exposure increased the number of mDCs and expression of costimulatory molecules in the PBLNs. In addition, CBPs upregulated the expression of CD80/CD86 molecules on dendritic cells in vitro, which are necessary for the particle adjuvant effects in vivo. Conclusion: Together this study shows the importance of dendritic cells and costimulation in particle adjuvant activity. Furthermore, we show for the first time that CBPs can also directly induce maturation of dendritic cells.

, , , , ,,
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

de Haar, C.J, Kool, M, Hassing, I, Bol, M, Lambrecht, B.N.M, & Pieters, R. (2008). Lung dendritic cells are stimulated by ultrafine particles and play a key role in particle adjuvant activity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121(5), 1246–1254. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.01.010