Endoscopic treatment of esophagogastric variceal bleeding in patients with noncirrhotic extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis: a long-term follow-up study
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy , Volume 67 - Issue 6 p. 821- 827
Background: Esophagogastric variceal bleeding is the most important complication of extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT) and is usually treated endoscopically. Little is known about the prognosis of these patients. Objectives: To investigate the long-term clinical outcome and efficacy of endoscopic treatment in patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding secondary to EPVT. Design: Retrospective observational study. Settings: Single university center. Patients: Twenty-seven consecutive patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding, secondary to noncirrhotic, nonmalignant EPVT, who underwent endoscopic treatment between 1982 and 2005. Interventions: Endoscopic band ligation and/or endoscopic sclerotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements: The overall rebleeding risk, overall survival, complications of the endoscopic procedures, and predictive values of rebleeding. Analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate Cox regression. Results: All patients were followed-up after the first endoscopically treated variceal bleeding. A total of 241 endoscopic procedures were performed. In all patients, initial control of bleeding was obtained. The overall rebleeding risk was 23% (95% CI, 0%-24%) at 1 year and 37% (95% CI, 43%-83%) at 5 years. Extension of thrombosis into the splenic vein and the presence of fundal varices were significant predictors of rebleeding, with a nearly 5-fold increased risk for patients with EPVT and fundal varices at the time of the first variceal hemorrhage (hazard ratio 5.07, P = .01). A portosystemic shunt procedure was performed in 5 patients: 4 for variceal bleeding and in one patient for refractory ascites. Seven patients died, none from variceal bleeding. Overall 5-year and 10-year survivals were 100% and 62% (95% CI, 38%-96%), respectively. Limitations: Retrospective design. Conclusions: In patients with variceal bleeding secondary to EPVT endoscopic treatment, in particular, band ligation appears safe and effective. EPVT-related mortality is primarily determined by other causes than variceal bleeding.