Solid tumor therapy with chemotherapeutics greatly depends on the efficiency with which drugs are delivered to tumor cells. The typical characteristics of the tumor physiology promote but also appose accumulation of blood-borne agents. The leaky tumor vasculature allows easy passage of drugs. However, the disorganized vasculature causes heterogeneous blood flow, and together with the often-elevated interstitial fluid pressure, this state results in poor intratumoral drug levels and failure of treatment. Manipulation of the tumor vasculature could overcome these barriers and promote drug delivery. Targeting the vasculature has several advantages. The endothelial lining is readily accessible and the first to be encountered after systemic injection. Second, endothelial cells tend to be more stable than tumor cells and thus less likely to develop resistance to therapy. Third, targeting the tumor vasculature can have dual effects: (i) manipulation of the vasculature can enhance concomitant chemotherapy, and (ii) subsequent destruction of the vasculature can help to kill the tumor. In particular, tumor necrosis factor α is studied. Its action on solid tumors, both directly through tumor cell killing and destruction of the tumor vasculature and indirectly through manipulation of the tumor physiology, is complex. Understanding the mechanism of TNF and agents with comparable action on solid tumors is an important focus to further develop combination immunotherapy strategies.

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Keywords Cancer, Solid tumor, Tumor necrosis factor α, Vasculature
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Journal Immunological Reviews
ten Hagen, T.L.M, Seynhaeve, A.L.B, & Eggermont, A.M.M. (2008). Tumor necrosis factor-mediated interactions between inflammatory response and tumor vascular bed. Immunological Reviews (Vol. 222, pp. 299–315). doi:10.1111/j.1600-065X.2008.00619.x