Objective: The authors describe their experience in treating 22 children with a single brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) using a dedicated LINAC stereotactic radiosurgery unit. Methods: The findings of 22 consecutive patients ≤ 18 years of age who underwent radiosurgery for a single bAVM and with at least 24 months of follow-up, or earlier proven obliteration,were reviewed. The median age at radiosurgery was 13.8 years,with a hemorrhagic presentation in 86%. Median bAVM-volume was 1.8 ml, with a median prescribed marginal dose of 19.0 Gy. Results: The crude complete obliteration-rate was 68% (n = 15) after a median follow-up of 24 months. The actuarial obliteration- rate was 45 % after two years and 64 % after three years. Patients with a radiosurgery-based AVM score ≤ 1 more frequently had an excellent outcome than patients with a bAVM score > 1 (71% vs. 20%, P = 0.12), as well as an increased obliteration rate (P = 0.03) One patient died from a bAVM-related hemorrhage 27 months after radiosurgery, representing a postradiosurgery hemorrhage rate of 1.3%/year for the complete followup interval. Overall outcome was good to excellent in 68% (n = 15). Radiation-induced changes on MR imaging were seen in 36% (n = 8) after a median interval of 12.5 months, resulting in deterioration of pre-existing neurological symptoms in one patient. Conclusions: Radiosurgery is a relatively effective, minimally invasive treatment for small bAVMs in children. The rebleeding rate is low, provided that known predilection places for bleeding had been endovascularly eliminated.Our overall results compare unfavourably to recent pediatric microsurgical series, although comparison between series remains imprecise.Nevertheless, when treatment is indicated in a child with a bAVM that is amenable to both microsurgery or radiosurgery, microsurgery should carefully be advocated over radiosurgery, because of its immediate risk reduction.

cerebrovascular disorders, intracranial arteriovenous malformations, pediatrics, radiosurgery, stereotaxic techniques
dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-008-0739-4, hdl.handle.net/1765/29657
Journal of Neurology: official journal of the European Neurological Society
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Buis, D.R, Dirven, C.M.F, Lagerwaard, F.J, Mandl, E.S, Lycklama à Nijeholt, G.J, Eshghi, D.S, … Vandertop, W.P. (2008). Radiosurgery of brain arteriovenous malformations in children. Journal of Neurology: official journal of the European Neurological Society, 255(4), 551–560. doi:10.1007/s00415-008-0739-4