Context: Low birth weight is associated with increased risks for adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). Adiponectin and resistin are hormones, considered, respectively, protective and disadvantageous regarding these risks. No data exist on the effect of long-term GH treatment on these hormones and inflammatory markers in children born small for gestational age (SGA). Objective: To describe longitudinal changes in inflammatory markers and adipocytokines during and after a long-term dose-response GH study. Design: Longitudinal dose-response study [group A: 1 mg/m2body surface area (BSA) (approximately 0.033 mg/kg/day) vs. group B: 2 mg/m2BSA (approximately 0.067 mg/kg/day)] and comparison with age-related controls. Patients: One hundred and three SGA children. Measurements: We measured adiponectin, resistin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at baseline, after 1 and 7 years of GH treatment and 6 months after discontinuation of GH. Results: Adiponectin levels decreased over time, but remained comparable with controls. Resistin levels increased and remained lower or comparable with controls. There were no significant differences between the GH dosage groups. After the GH treatment was stopped, adiponectin was decreased in group B and resistin increased in group A. GH therapy did not affect IL-6 and CRP levels at any time point. An increase in body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) over time was associated with a decrease in adiponectin levels. None of the markers were associated with insulin sensitivity. Conclusions: Long-term GH treatment is not associated with disadvantageous changes in adiponectin, resistin, IL-6 and CRP levels, neither during nor after GH treatment.,
Clinical Endocrinology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Willemsen, R., Mulder, P., van Toorenenbergen, A., & Hokken-Koelega, A. (2008). Long-term GH treatment is not associated with disadvantageous changes of inflammatory markers and adipocytokines in children born small for gestational age. Clinical Endocrinology, 68(2), 198–205. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.03019.x