Purpose: To quantify intrafraction patient motion and its time dependence in immobilized intracranial and extracranial patients. The data can be used to optimize the intrafraction imaging frequency and consequent patient setup correction with an image guidance and tracking system, and to establish the required safety margins in the absence of such a system. Method and Materials: The intrafraction motion of 32 intracranial patients, immobilized with a thermoplastic mask, and 11 supine- and 14 prone-treated extracranial spine patients, immobilized with a vacuum bag, were analyzed. The motion was recorded by an X-ray, stereoscopic, image-guidance system. For each group, we calculated separately the systematic (overall mean and SD) and the random displacement as a function of elapsed intrafraction time. Results: The SD of the systematic intrafraction displacements increased linearly over time for all three patient groups. For intracranial-, supine-, and prone-treated patients, the SD increased to 0.8, 1.2, and 2.2 mm, respectively, in a period of 15 min. The random displacements for the prone-treated patients were significantly higher than for the other groups, namely 1.6 mm (1 SD), probably caused by respiratory motion. Conclusions: Despite the applied immobilization devices, patients drift away from their initial position during a treatment fraction. These drifts are in general small if compared with conventional treatment margins, but will significantly contribute to the margin for high-precision radiation treatments with treatment times of 15 min or longer.

Image-guided radiotherapy, Intrafraction motion, Margins, Patient setup, Robotic radiosurgery
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.08.066, hdl.handle.net/1765/29745
International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Hoogeman, M.S, Nuyttens, J.J.M.E, Levendag, P.C, & Heijmen, B.J.M. (2008). Time Dependence of Intrafraction Patient Motion Assessed by Repeat Stereoscopic Imaging. International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics, 70(2), 609–618. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.08.066