A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARγ/α dual agonist and has been shown previously to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects antitumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the antitumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662revealed that MUC2 induction by MCC-555 was mediated in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Moreover, MCC-555 increased transcriptional activity of human and mouse MUC2 promoters. Subsequently, treatment with MCC-555 (30 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks reduced the number of small intestinal polyps to 54.8% of that in control mice. In agreement with in vitro studies, enhanced Muc2 expression was observed in the small intestinal tumors of Min mice treated with MCC-555, suggesting that MUC2 expression may be associated at least in part with the antitumorigenic action of MCC-555. In addition, highly phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was found in the intestinal tumors of MCC-555-treated Min mice, and inhibition of the ERK pathway by a specific inhibitor markedly suppressed MCC-555-induced Muc2 expression in vitro. Overall, these results indicate that MCC-555 has a potent tumor suppressor activity in intestinal tumorigenesis, likely involving MUC2 up-regulation by ERK and PPARγ pathways. Copyright

dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0173, hdl.handle.net/1765/30407
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Yamaguchi, K, Cekanova, M, McEntee, M.F, Yoon, J.H, Fischer, S, Renes, I.B, … Baek, S.J. (2008). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand MCC-555 suppresses intestinal polyps in ApcMin/+ mice via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-dependent pathways. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 7(9), 2779–2787. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0173