Methods: The study included 25 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients (15 non-obstructive and 10 obstructive) and 25 controls for assessment of left atrial (LA) volume, mass and function by two-dimensional echocardiography. Measurement included mean LA diameter (LAD), LA mass = {(mean LAD + anterior LA wall + posterior LA wall)3- mean LAD3} × 0.8 + 0.6, LA volume = [(8/3 φ L ̇ A1 ̇ A2), where L is LA length, A1 and A2 are LA area in 4-chambers and 2-chambers, respectively] including maximum (Vmax), minimum (Vmin), and pre-atrial contraction (Vpre-A), total atrial stroke volume (TA-SV), TA emptying fraction (TA-EF), active atrial SV (AA-SV), AA-EF, passive atrial SV (PA-SV), PA-EF, atrial expansion index (AEI), and LA kinetic energy (LA-KE) = 1/2 × AA-SV × P × V2. Results: LAD, LA mass, Vmax, Vmin, and Vpre-Awere significantly higher in HCM than controls. TA-SV and TA-EF were comparable in both HCM subgroups and controls. AA-SV and LA-KE were significantly higher in both HCM subgroups than controls. LA-KE was significantly higher in obstructive HCM than non-obstructive (P < 0.001). PA-EF and AEI were significantly lower in obstructive HCM than controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HCM is associated with increased LA size and augmented LA pump function especially obstructive type. LA conduit and reservoir functions are impaired in obstructive HCM.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Left atrial function, Left atrial mass, Left atrial volume,
International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Anwar, A.M, Soliman, O.I.I, Nemes, A, Geleijnse, M.L, & ten Cate, F.J. (2008). An integrated approach to determine left atrial volume, mass and function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by two-dimensional echocardiography. International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 24(1), 45–52. doi:10.1007/s10554-007-9224-x