Purpose: To report the clinical efficiency and complications in patients treated with retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization of high-flow AVMs is a technique that can be used to treat AVMs with a dominant outflow vein whenever conventional interventional procedures have proved insufficient. Methods: This is a retrospective study of the clinical effectiveness and complications of retrograde embolization in five patients who had previously undergone multiple arterial embolization procedures without clinical success. Results: Clinical outcomes were good in all patients but were achieved at the cost of serious, although transient, complications in three patients. Conclusion: Retrograde transvenous ethanol embolization is a highly effective therapy for high-flow AVMs. However, because of the high complication rate, it should be reserved as a last resort, to be used after conventional treatment options have failed.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Arteriovenous, Embolization, Vascular malformations
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-011-0265-0, hdl.handle.net/1765/30993
Journal CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology
van der Linden, E, van Baalen, J.M, & Pattynama, P.M.T. (2012). Retrograde Transvenous Ethanol Embolization of High-flow Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations. CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology, 35(4), 820–825. doi:10.1007/s00270-011-0265-0