A hernia of the abdominal wall is a permanent or intermittent protrusion of abdominal contents outside the abdominal cavity through a defect in the abdominal wall. Approximately 75% of all hernias occur in the inguinal region. Other types of hernias of the ventral abdominal wall are incisional, umbilical, epigastric and Spigelian hernia. In chapter 1 an overview of hernias of the abdominal wall is described. The incidence, clinical implications and treatment options and their complications are described, based on the available literature regarding this subject. Since there are numerous methods for abdominal wall hernia repair, without consensus about the preferred method, we decided to perform a randomized clinical trial to compare mesh and non-mesh repair for inguinal hernias. This randomized clinical trial is described in chapter 2. The preferential method of hernia repair is discussed in an editorial, not only for inguinal hernias, but also for other types of abdominal wall hernias such as incisional hernias and large umbilical hernias. Endoscopic hernia repair was included in this editorial, which is described in chapter 3.