Purpose: To determine the existence of a correlation between the vertical angle of strabismus and the vertical angle between the orbital axes in nonsyndromic plagiocephaly in childhood. Methods: Patients were included when diagnosed with plagiocephaly. Orthoptic measurements showed a vertical strabismus and three-dimensional computed tomographic (CT) imaging of the skull was available. Patients were excluded if plagiocephaly was part of a syndrome or if any surgical intervention had taken place before our measurements. Three-dimensional CT imaging was used to calculate the vertical angle between the orbital axes in 3 reference planes (VAO) perpendicular to a line of reference through the lower borders of the maxilla (VAOmax), both auditory canals (VAOaud), and the lower points of the external occipital protuberances (VAOocc). Results: Fourteen patients were included (mean age, 14 mo). Three-dimensional CT measurements showed a mean (SD) VAOmax of 1.70 (2.31) degrees, VAOaud of -1.54 (1.46) degrees, and VAOocc of -2.06 (4.29) degrees (a negative value indicates that the eye on the affected side was situated lower in the head). The mean vertical angle of strabismus was -2.39 (4.69) degrees in gaze toward the affected side, 3.66 (3.77) degrees in gaze ahead, and 8.14 (5.63) degrees in gaze toward the nonaffected side. The Pearson test showed no significant correlations. Conclusions: The clinical observation that vertical strabismus in adult plagiocephaly is correlated with the vertical angle of the orbital axes could not be confirmed in young children. Copyright

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doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181f6f814, hdl.handle.net/1765/31561
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Department of Ophthalmology

Eveleens, J., Mathijssen, I., Leguin, M., Polling, J. R., Looman, C., & Simonsz, H. (2011). Vertical position of the orbits in nonsyndromic plagiocephaly in childhood and its relation to vertical strabismus. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 22(1), 135–138. doi:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3181f6f814