Renal aspergillosis is an extremely uncommon complication in HIV-infected patients. In general, prognosis is poor and the need for nephrectomy is emphasized. We report the case of a 37-year-old patient with AIDS since April 2003 (CD4 count 10 cells/mm3, a high viral load, Candida esophagitis, bilateral pneumonia, HIV encephalopathy). Treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine, and lopinavir/ritonavir was started. Adherence to this medication proved to be a problem, but after 18 weeks of HAART the CD4 count was 110 cells/mm3and viral load was undetectable. One year later, he presented with hematuria and flank pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple lesions in both kidneys. Cultures of the abscess aspirates yielded Aspergillus fumigatus. Our review of 18 reported cases shows that prognosis of renal aspergillosis is poor if nephrectomy is not performed. However, in the present case a conservative approach was chosen to avoid life-long dialysis. The patient was treated successfully with a combination of voriconazole, percutaneous drainage, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Renal function was completely preserved. Reported cases from the literature of renal aspergillosis in HIV-infected patients are summarized in this paper.,
AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Oosten, A., Sprenger, H., van Leeuwen, J. T. M., Meessen, N. E. L., & van Assen, S. (2008). Bilateral renal aspergillosis in a patient with AIDS: A case report and review of reported cases. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 22(1), 1–5. doi:10.1089/apc.2007.0051