Influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype cause an ever-increasing number of bird-to-human transmissions and a pandemic outbreak caused by these viruses is imminent. Therefore, the availability of safe and effective vaccines is highly desirable and their development considered a priority. However, using production and use of seasonal influenza vaccine as template for the production of pandemic H5N1 vaccines did not yield effective vaccines. High antigen doses were required to induce appreciable antibody responses. In addition, limited production capacity and long production times are other disadvantages of conventional influenza vaccine preparations. Here, we review recent developments that will contribute to a more rapid availability of sufficient doses of highly efficacious and safe pandemic influenza vaccines. The new developments include the establishment of novel methods to prepare vaccine strains, novel production technologies and the use of novel adjuvants and alternative vaccine formulations.

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Human Vaccines
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Kreijtz, J., Osterhaus, A., & Rimmelzwaan, G. (2009). Vaccination strategies and vaccine formulations for epidemic and pandemic influenza control. Human Vaccines (Vol. 5, pp. 126–135). doi:10.4161/hv.5.3.6986