The prognostic and/or predictive value of the cancer biomarkers, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor (plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1), determined by ELISA in tumor-tissue extracts, was demonstrated for several cancer types in numerous clinically relevant retrospective or prospective studies, including a multicenter breast cancer therapy trial (Chemo-N0). Consequently, for the first time ever for any cancer biomarker for breast cancer, uPA and PAI-1 have reached the highest level of evidence, level-of-evidence-1. At present, two other breast cancer therapy trials, NNBC-3 and Plan B, also incorporating uPA and PAI-1 as treatment-assignment tools are in effect. Furthermore, small synthetic molecules targeting uPA are currently in Phase II clinical trials in patients afflicted with advanced cancer of the ovary, breast or pancreas.

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Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Schmitt, M, Mengele, K, Napieralski, R, Magdolen, V, Reuning, U, Gkazepis, A, … Harbeck, N. (2010). Clinical utility of level-of-evidence-1 disease forecast cancer biomarkers uPA and its inhibitor PAI-1. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics (Vol. 10, pp. 1051–1067). doi:10.1586/erm.10.71