Context: Gonadectomy is avoided whenever possible in boys with 45,X/46,XY. However, no clinical markers are currently available to guide clinicians in predicting gonadal tumor risk or hormone production. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that gonadal histology and risk for development of a malignant germ cell tumor are reflected by the clinical presentation of a 45,X/46,XY individual. Design: The design of the study was the correlation of clinical data [external masculinization score (EMS), pubertal outcome] with pathology data (gonadal phenotype, tumor risk). Setting: This was a multicenter study involving two multidisciplinary disorder of sex development teams. Patients: Patients included genetically proven 45,X/46,XY (and variants) cases, ofwhomat leastone gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy specimen was available, together with clinical details. Interventions: Patients (n = 48) were divided into three groups, based on the EMS. Gonadal histology and tumor risk were assessedonparaffin-embedded samples (n = 87) by morphology and immunohistochemistry on the basis of established criteria. Main Outcome Measures: Gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in the three clinical groups were measured. Clinical outcome in patients with at least one preserved gonad was also measured. Results: Tumor risk in the three groups was significantly related to the gonadal differentiation pattern (P < 0.001). In boys, hormone production was sufficient and was not predicted by the EMS. Conclusions: The EMS reflects gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in patients with 45,X/46,XY. In boys, testosterone production is often sufficient, but strict follow-up is warranted because of malignancy risk, which appears inversely related to EMS. In girls, tumor risk is limited but gonads are not functional, makinggonadectomythemostreasonable option. Copyright,
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Cools, M., Pleskacova, J., Stoop, H., Hoebeke, P., van Laecke, E., Drop, S., … Wolffenbuttel, K. (2011). Gonadal pathology and tumor risk in relation to clinical characteristics in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(7). doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0232