Huisstede BM, Hoogvliet P, Paulis WD, van Middelkoop M, Hausman M, Coert JH, Koes BW. Effectiveness of interventions for secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a systematic review. Objectives: To present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of (non)surgical symptomatic interventions to treat secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). Data Sources: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, PEDro, and CINAHL were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Study Selection: Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria to select potential studies. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality. Data Synthesis: If pooling of data was not possible, a best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Of the 5 reviews and 19 RCTs included, 1 RCT studied acupuncture and another RCT reported on percutaneous radiofrequency thoracic sympathectomy. All others concentrated on the effectiveness of drugs (oral or intravenous [IV]). It appeared that calcium channel blockers significantly reduce the frequency and severity of Raynaud attacks, and are therefore effective in the treatment of secondary RP. Iloprost (oral and IV) was also found to be effective. Limited evidence was found for atorvastatin. For other traditional and more recently discovered interventions, no clear favorable effects were found. Conclusions: This review shows that there is clear evidence in favor of calcium channel blockers and iloprost (oral and IV) to treat secondary RP. For all other interventions, only limited, conflicting, or no evidence was found. More high-quality, well-designed RCTs are needed in this field, especially for new interventions based on recent knowledge about the pathophysiology of secondary RP.

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Keywords Drug therapy, General surgery, Hand, Infusions, Peripheral vascular diseases, Rehabilitation, intra-arterial
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Journal Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Huisstede, B.M.A, Hoogvliet, P, Paulis, W.D, van Middelkoop, M, Hausman, M, Coert, J.H, & Koes, B.W. (2011). Effectiveness of interventions for secondary raynaud's phenomenon: A systematic review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Vol. 92, pp. 1166–1180). doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2011.01.022