The risk of urologic complications after kidney transplantation is 0% to 30%. We studied the impact of prophylactic stent placement during transplantation by assessing the necessity for a percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) after living kidney transplantation. From January 2003 to December 2007, 342 living donor kidney transplantations were performed. Intra- and postoperative data were collected retrospectively from 285 patients with stent and 57 without. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between groups, except for the number of previous transplantations: 31 (11%) patients with versus 16 (28%) without stent had a history of >1 transplantation (P < .001). From patients with PCN, 55 (87%) patients in the stented group received a PCN <3 months versus 11 (100%) in the nonstented group (P = .71). The reoperation rate for urologic complications was similar in both groups (3% (stented) versus 5% (nonstented; P = .43). In multivariate analysis, risk for PCN was similar in both groups (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.52.5). Recipient survival was not significantly different. One- and 3-year death-censored graft survival was not significantly different between stented (89% and 84%) and nonstented group (90% and 85%, P = .71 and P = .96). Ureteral stent insertion is not associated with a reduced rate of PCN placement in living donor kidney transplantation.

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Journal Transplantation Proceedings
Dols, L.F.C, Terkivatan, T, Kok, N.F.M, Tran, T.C.K, Weimar, W, IJzermans, J.N.M, & Roodnat, J.I. (2011). Use of stenting in living donor kidney transplantation: Does it reduce vesicoureteral complications?. Transplantation Proceedings, 43(5), 1623–1626. doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2011.01.186