The features of 100 mixed-phenotype acute leukemias (MPALs), fulfilling WHO 2008 criteria, are documented. Myeloid and T-lineage features were demonstrated by cytoplasmic myeloperoxidase and CD3; B-lineage features were demonstrated by at least 2 B-lymphoid markers. There were 62 men and 38 women; 68% were adults. Morphology was consistent with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 43%), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 42%), or inconclusive (15%). Immunophenotyping disclosed B + myeloid (59%), T + myeloid (35%), B + T (4%), or trilineage (2%) combinations. Cytogenetics evidenced t(9;22)/(Ph+) (20%), 11q23/ MLL rearrangements (8%), complex (32%), aberrant (27%), or normal (13%) karyotypes. There was no correlation between age, morphology, immunophenotype, or cytogenetics. Response to treatment and outcome were available for 67 and 70 patients, respectively; 27 received ALL, 34 AML, 5 a combination of ALL + AML therapy, and 1 imatinib. ALL treatment induced a response in 85%, AML therapy in 41%; 3 of 5 patients responded to the combination therapy. Forty (58%) patients died, 33 of resistant disease. Overall median survival was 18 months and 37% of patients are alive at 5 years. Age, Ph+, and AML therapy were predictors for poor outcome (P < .001; P = .002; P = .003). MPAL is confirmed to be a poor-risk disease. Adults and Ph+patients should be considered for transplantation in first remission.,
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Matutes, E., Pickl, W., van 't Veer, M., Morilla, R., Swansbury, J., Strobl, H., … Ludwig, W. D. (2011). Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: Clinical and laboratory features and outcome in 100 patients defined according to the WHO 2008 classification. Blood, 117(11), 3163–3171. doi:10.1182/blood-2010-10-314682