Purpose: VERO is a novel platform for image guided stereotactic body radiotherapy. Orthogonal gimbals hold the linac-MLC assembly allowing real-time moving tumor tracking. This study determines the geometric accuracy of the tracking. Materials and methods: To determine the tracking error, an 1D moving phantom produced sinusoidal motion with frequencies up to 30 breaths per minute (bpm). Tumor trajectories of patients were reproduced using a 2D robot and pursued with the gimbals tracking system prototype. Using the moving beam light field and a digital-camera-based detection unit tracking errors, system lag and equivalence of pan/tilt performance were measured. Results: The system lag was 47.7 ms for panning and 47.6 ms for tilting. Applying system lag compensation, sinusoidal motion tracking was accurate, with a tracking error 90% percentile E90%< 0.82 mm and similar performance for pan/tilt. Systematic tracking errors were below 0.14 mm. The 2D tumor trajectories were tracked with an average E90%of 0.54 mm, and tracking error standard deviations of 0.20 mm for pan and 0.22 mm for tilt. Conclusions: In terms of dynamic behavior, the gimbaled linac of the VERO system showed to be an excellent approach for providing accurate real-time tumor tracking in radiation therapy.

Organ motion, Real-time tumor tracking, Tracking error
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2011.01.015, hdl.handle.net/1765/33705
Radiotherapy & Oncology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Depuydt, T, Verellen, D, Haas, O, Gevaert, T, Linthout, N, Duchateau, M, … Ridder, M.D. (2011). Geometric accuracy of a novel gimbals based radiation therapy tumor tracking system. Radiotherapy & Oncology, 98(3), 365–372. doi:10.1016/j.radonc.2011.01.015