Background Elevated admission plasma glucose is associated with increased mortality in patients who are admitted with an acute coronary syndrome. This may be mediated by increased inflammation, apoptosis and coagulation, and by a disturbed endothelial function that can be found in hyperglycaemic patients. Insulin has several characteristics that may potentially counteract these mechanisms. Methods The BIOMArCS programme is a multi-centre initiative and currently consists of three different studies. The effects of acute coronary syndrome on acute biomarkers washout are studied in the BIOMArCS pilot and the value of biomarkers in predicting upcoming acute coronary syndrome events is studied in BIOMArCS1. The third study (BIOMArCS2 glucose), which will be presented here, investigates the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose level control compared with conventional glucose management in patients with acute coronary syndrome and an admission plasma glucose of 7.8-16mmol/l. In BIOMArCS2 glucose, a total of 300 patients without insulin-treated diabetes mellitus will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either intensive or conventional glucose management on top of standard medical care. The primary endpoint is infarct size as expressed by the cardiac troponinT level 72h after admission. To study the metabolic effects of insulin administration, we will investigate biomarker washout patterns of various metabolic mechanisms up to 7days after admission. These markers will address inflammation, oxidative stress, hypercoagulability, endothelial activation and vasodilatation. Implications Current acute coronary syndrome guidelines lack a clear strategy for hyperglycaemia treatment. This study will extend our knowledge on this matter as it may clarify mechanisms and generate hypotheses of if and how myocardial infarct size may be limited by glucose management at admission. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine

Acute coronary syndrome, Biomarkers, Diabetes, Hyperglycaemia, Intensive glucose regulation,
Diabetic Medicine: journal of diabetes UK
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

de Mulder, M, Umans, V.A.W.M, Stam, F, Cornel, J.-H, Oemrawsingh, R.M, & Boersma, H. (2011). Intensive management of hyperglycaemia in acute coronary syndromes. Study design and rationale of the BIOMArCS2 glucose trial. Diabetic Medicine: journal of diabetes UK, 28(10), 1168–1175. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2011.03307.x