Three-dimensional patient specific bone models are required in a range of medical applications, such as pre-operative surgery planning and improved guidance during surgery, modeling and simulation, and in vivo bone motion tracking. Shape reconstruction from a small number of X-ray images is desired as it lowers both the acquisition costs and the radiation dose compared to CT. We propose a method for pose estimation and shape reconstruction of 3D bone surfaces from two (or more) calibrated X-ray images using a statistical shape model (SSM). User interaction is limited to manual initialization of the mean shape. The proposed method combines a 3D distance based objective function with automatic edge selection on a Canny edge map. Landmark-edge correspondences are weighted based on the orientation difference of the projected silhouette and the corresponding image edge. The method was evaluated by rigid pose estimation of ground truth shapes as well as 3D shape estimation using a SSM of the whole femur, from stereo cadaver X-rays, in vivo biplane fluoroscopy image-pairs, and an in vivo biplane fluoroscopic sequence. Ground truth shapes for all experiments were available in the form of CT segmentations. Rigid registration of the ground truth shape to the biplane fluoroscopy achieved sub-millimeter accuracy (0.68. mm) measured as root mean squared (RMS) point-to-surface (P2S) distance. The non-rigid reconstruction from the biplane fluoroscopy using the SSM also showed promising results (1.68. mm RMS P2S). A feasibility study on one fluoroscopic time series illustrates the potential of the method for motion and shape estimation from fluoroscopic sequences with minimal user interaction.

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Medical Image Analysis
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Baka, N., Kaptein, B., de Bruijne, M., van Walsum, T., Giphart, E., Niessen, W., & Lelieveldt, B. (2011). 2D-3D shape reconstruction of the distal femur from stereo X-ray imaging using statistical shape models. Medical Image Analysis, 15(6), 840–850. doi:10.1016/