Background and purpose: Non-anatomic bone tunnel placement is the most common cause of a failed ACL reconstruction. Accurate and reproducible methods to visualize and document bone tunnel placement are therefore important. We evaluated the reliability of standard radiographs, CT scans, and a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual reality (VR) approach in visualizing and measuring ACL reconstruction bone tunnel placement. Methods: 50 consecutive patients who underwent single-bundle ACL reconstructions were evaluated postoperatively by standard radiographs, CT scans, and 3D VR images. Tibial and femoral tunnel positions were measured by 2 observers using the traditional methods of Amis, Aglietti, Hoser, Stubli, and the method of Benereau for the VR approach. Results: The tunnel was visualized in 50-82% of the standard radiographs and in 100% of the CT scans and 3D VR images. Using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the inter- and intraobserver agreement was between 0.39 and 0.83 for the standard femoral and tibial radiographs. CT scans showed an ICC range of 0.49-0.76 for the inter- and intraobserver agreement. The agreement in 3D VR was almost perfect, with an ICC of 0.83 for the femur and 0.95 for the tibia. Interpretation: CT scans and 3D VR images are more reliable in assessing postoperative bone tunnel placement following ACL reconstruction than standard radiographs. Copyright:,
Acta Orthopaedica (Print)
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Meuffels, D., Potters, J. W., Koning, A., Brown, C., Jr., Verhaar, J., & Reijman, M. (2011). Visualization of postoperative anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction bone tunnels: Reliability of standard radiographs, CT scans, and 3D virtual reality images. Acta Orthopaedica (Print), 82(6), 699–703. doi:10.3109/17453674.2011.623566