Background: Accurate pretreatment assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness is important in decision making. Gleason grade is a critical predictor of the aggressiveness of PCa. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies (TRUSBxs) show substantial undergrading of Gleason grades found after radical prostatectomy (RP). Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be a biomarker of tumour aggressiveness. Objective: To improve pretreatment assessment of PCa aggressiveness, this study prospectively evaluated MRI-guided prostate biopsies (MR-GBs) of abnormalities determined on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The results were compared with a 10-core TRUSBx cohort. RP findings served as the gold standard. Design, setting, and participants: A 10-core TRUSBx (n = 64) or MR-GB (n = 34) was used for PCa diagnosis before RP in 98 patients. Measurements: Using multiparametric 3-T MRI: T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, and DWI were performed to identify tumour-suspicious regions in patients with a negative TRUSBx. The regions with the highest restriction on ADC maps within the suspicions regions were used to direct MR-GB. A 10-core TRUSBx was used in a matched cohort. Following RP, the highest Gleason grades (HGGs) in biopsies and RP specimens were identified. Biopsy and RP Gleason grade results were evaluated using chi-square analysis. Results and limitations: No significant differences on RP were observed for proportions of patients having a HGG of 3 (35% vs 28%; p = 0.50), 4 (32% vs 41%; p = 0.51), and 5 (32% vs 31%; p = 0.61) for the MR-GB and TRUSBx cohort, respectively. MR-GB showed an exact performance with RP for overall HGG: 88% (30 of 34); for TRUS-GB it was 55% (35 of 64; p = 0.001). In the MR-GB cohort, an exact performance with HGG 3 was 100% (12 of 12); for HGG 4, 91% (10 of 11); and for HGG 5, 73% (8 of 11). The corresponding performance rates for TRUSBx were 94% (17 of 18; p = 0.41), 46% (12 of 26; p = 0.02), and 30% (6 of 20; p = 0.01), respectively. Conclusions: This study shows prospectively that DWI-directed MR-GBs significantly improve pretreatment risk stratification by obtaining biopsies that are representative of true Gleason grade.

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European Urology : Official Journal of the European Association of Urology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Hambrock, T., Hoeks, C., Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C., Scheenen, T., Fütterer, J., Bouwense, S., … Barentsz, J. (2012). Prospective assessment of prostate cancer aggressiveness using 3-T diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies versus a systematic 10-core transrectal ultrasound prostate biopsy cohort. European Urology : Official Journal of the European Association of Urology, 61(1), 177–184. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.08.042