After randomization of subfertile couples with an isolated cervical factor to intrauterine insemination for 6 months or expectant management for 6 months, 26 women (51%) vs. 16 women (33%) conceived, respectively. Of these pregnancies, 22 (43%) vs. 13 (27%) were ongoing (relative risk, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 2.8). There was one multiple pregnancy in the group that was allocated to intrauterine insemination. This trial suggests a beneficial effect of IUI in couples with an isolated cervical factor.