The immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated whole SIVmac (32H) preparation adjuvanted with muramyl dipeptide (SIV-MDP) and a gp120-enriched SIVmac (32H) ISCOM preparation (SIV-ISCOM), were compared by immunizing four rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) four times with SIV-MDP and four others in the same way with SIV-ISCOM. Two monkeys immunized with whole inactivated measles virus (MV) adjuvanted with MDP (MV-MDP) and two monkeys immunized with MV-ISCOM served as controls. In the SIV-ISCOM-immunized monkeys higher SIV-specific serum antibody titres were found than in the SIV-MDP-immunized monkeys. In contrast to the MV-immunized monkeys all SIV-MDP- and SIV-ISCOM-immunized monkeys were protected against intravenous challenge 2 weeks after the last immunization with 10 median monkey infectious doses (MID50) of a cell-free SIVmac (32H) challenge stock propagated in the human T-cell line C8166. After 43 weeks the protected monkeys were reboosted and 2 weeks later rechallenged with 10 MID50 of the same virus produced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a rhesus macaque. None of these animals proved to be protected against this challenge. In a parallel experiment in which the same numbers of monkeys were immunized in the same way, the animals were challenged intravenously with 10 MID50 of PBMC from an SIVmac (32H)-infected rhesus macaque. Two out of four SIV-MDP- and two out of four SIV-ISCOM-immunized monkeys proved to be protected from SIV infection.

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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

de Vries, P., Heeney, J., Boes, J., Dings, M., Hulskotte, E., Dubbes, R., … Osterhaus, A. (1994). Protection of rhesus macaques from SIV infection by immunization with different experimental SIV vaccines. Vaccine, 12(15), 1443–1452. doi:10.1016/0264-410X(94)90154-6