Most adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who reach a complete remission (CR) after induction chemotherapy will relapse if they do not receive further therapy. Autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents one of the options of postremission therapy in AML. Here we discuss the therapeutic impact of consolidation treatment with autologous SCT that has been studied extensively. Meta-analyses of published randomized trials using bone marrow as the source of stem cells show a modest improvement of disease-free survival as compared to nonmyeloablative chemotherapy. However, there is no apparent improvement of overall survival, probably due to the slightly increased mortality associated with autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Subsequently, the value of autologous SCT in different prognostic subsets of AML is discussed. Autologous mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation offers a much faster hematopoietic recovery and is associated with reduced morbidity and treatment-related mortality. To fully appreciate the role of autologous PBSC transplantation, the results of a recently closed randomized trial must be awaited.