In the absence of any overt task performance, it has been shown that spontaneous, intrinsic brain activity is expressed as system-wide, resting-state networks in the adult brain. However, the route to adult patterns of resting-state activity through neuronal development in the human brain is currently unknown. Therefore, we used functional MRI to map patterns of resting-state activity in infants during sleep. We found five unique resting-states networks in the infant brain that encompassed the primary visual cortex, bilateral sensorimotor areas, bilateral auditory cortex, a network including the precuneus area, lateral parietal cortex, and the cerebellum as well as an anterior network that incorporated the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that resting-state networks driven by spontaneous signal fluctuations are present already in the infant brain. The potential link between the emergence of behavior and patterns of resting-state activity in the infant brain is discussed. development functional MRI spontaneous activity,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Fransson, P., Skiöld, B., Horsch, S., Nordell, A., Blennow, M., Lagercrantz, H., & Ådén, U. (2007). Resting-state networks in the infant brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(39), 15531–15536. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704380104