We evaluated the value of baseline parameters derived from tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for event prediction in patients with heart failure (HF) secondary to ischemic and nonischemic cause who underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Seventy-four consecutive patients with HF (mean age 59 ± 11 years) underwent CRT. Baseline clinical parameters included New York Heart Association class, 6-minute walking distance, HF cause, and diabetes. TDI-derived parameters included lateral and septal E/E′ ratios defined as peak early left ventricular (LV) filling velocity (E wave) to TDI-derived peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus (E′ wave). During a median follow-up of 720 days, 21 patients (28%) had cardiac death or hospitalization for HF. These patients more often had an ischemic cause (p <0.05), diabetes (p <0.05), and restrictive filling (p <0.001), less often had LV dyssynchrony (p <0.05), and had higher septal and lateral E/E′ ratios (p <0.001 for the 2 comparisons). In a multivariable model using a forward selection algorithm, only the lateral E/E′ ratio remained an independent predictor of cardiac outcome. After 3 months of CRT, TDI-derived systolic mitral annular systolic and diastolic velocities improved significantly in nonischemic patients for the septal and lateral sides. In contrast, in ischemic patients no significant improvements were seen. Significant improvements were seen in septal and lateral E/E′ ratios in ischemic and nonischemic patients. However, the improvement in lateral E/E′ ratio was significantly less and absolute 3-months E/E′ ratios were worse in ischemic patients. In conclusion, baseline lateral E/E′ ratio is an independent predictor for cardiac events in patients with HF treated with CRT. The worse clinical outcome in ischemic patients may be due to failure of improvement in systolic and diastolic mitral annular velocities after CRT, resulting in a less pronounced improvement in LV filling pressures as demonstrated by this E/E′ ratio.

doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.03.047, hdl.handle.net/1765/35286
The American Journal of Cardiology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Soliman, O. I. I., Theuns, D., ten Cate, F., Anwar, A., Nemes, A., Vletter, W., … Geleijnse, M. (2007). Baseline Predictors of Cardiac Events After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Patients With Heart Failure Secondary to Ischemic or Nonischemic Etiology. The American Journal of Cardiology, 100(3), 464–469. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.03.047