Background: Cardiac involvement in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) has been studied primarily in its most severe forms. Cardiac involvement, particularly left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, in the attenuated form of MPS I is less well known. Methods: Cardiac function was prospectively investigated in 9 adult patients with the attenuated form of MPS I. All patients underwent 12-lead electrocardiography, 24 h Holter monitoring and two-dimensional echocardiography including tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Eighteen age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers served as a control group. Results: Aortic, mitral and tricuspid valve thickening was seen in, respectively, 5 (56%), 4 (44%) and 2 (22%) patients. Moderate mitral valve stenosis was seen in 1 patient and moderate aortic stenosis in 2 patients. All patients had mild-to-moderate aortic and mitral valve regurgitation and 6 patients (67%) had mild-to-moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation. Despite normal LV dimensions, ejection fraction and mass index, MPS patients had lower mean systolic mitral annular velocities (6.1±0.6 vs 9.1±1.4 cm/s, p<0.01) compared to normal control subjects. Similarly, mean early diastolic mitral annular velocities were lower in MPS patients (7.8±0.9 vs 13.3±3.3 cm/s, p<0.01). Conclusion: MPS I patients with the attenuated phenotype have not only valvular abnormalities but also LV diastolic and systolic abnormalities.

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Journal Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Soliman, O.I.I, Timmermans, R.G.M, Nemes, A, Vletter, W.B, Wilson, J.H.P, ten Cate, F.J, & Geleijnse, M.L. (2007). Cardiac abnormalities in adults with the attenuated form of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 30(5), 750–757. doi:10.1007/s10545-007-0586-y