One hundred and fifty-three nursing home residents received 0, 5, 25 or 50 mg N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-dipeptide (GMDP) orally, and trivalent influenza subunit vaccine intramuscularly. One day after intervention, there was a strong increase of total leucocytes, monocytes and neutrophils in the groups receiving 25 or 50 mg GMDP. A GMDP dose dependent increase in systemic, but not in local, vaccine side-effects was observed. No significant differences in post-vaccination haemagglutination inhibiting serum antibody titres were observed between the four groups, indicating that oral administration of GMDP together with influenza vaccination, does not lead to a higher vaccine efficacy.

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Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Palache, A., Beyer, W., Hendriksen, E., Gerez, L., Aston, R., Ledger, P. W., … Osterhaus, A. (1996). Adjuvancy and reactogenicity of N-acetylglycosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-dipeptide (GMDP) orally administered just prior to trivalent influenza subunit vaccine. A double-blind placebo-controlled study in nursing home residents. Vaccine, 14(14), 1327–1330. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(96)00075-8