One hundred and fifty-three nursing home residents received 0, 5, 25 or 50 mg N-acetylglucosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-dipeptide (GMDP) orally, and trivalent influenza subunit vaccine intramuscularly. One day after intervention, there was a strong increase of total leucocytes, monocytes and neutrophils in the groups receiving 25 or 50 mg GMDP. A GMDP dose dependent increase in systemic, but not in local, vaccine side-effects was observed. No significant differences in post-vaccination haemagglutination inhibiting serum antibody titres were observed between the four groups, indicating that oral administration of GMDP together with influenza vaccination, does not lead to a higher vaccine efficacy.

0 (Adjuvants, Immunologic), 0 (Antibodies, Viral), 0 (Influenza Vaccine), 0 (Placebos), Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage/pharmacology/*therapeutic, Administration, Oral, Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis/blood, Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic, Double-Blind Method, Female, Human, Influenza Vaccine/*administration & dosage/adverse effects, Male, Nursing Homes, Placebos, use
dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0264-410X(96)00075-8, hdl.handle.net/1765/3582
Vaccine
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Palache, A.M, Beyer, W.E.Ph, Hendriksen, E, Gerez, L, Aston, R, Ledger, P.W, … Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. (1996). Adjuvancy and reactogenicity of N-acetylglycosaminyl-N-acetylmuramyl-dipeptide (GMDP) orally administered just prior to trivalent influenza subunit vaccine. A double-blind placebo-controlled study in nursing home residents. Vaccine, 14(14), 1327–1330. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(96)00075-8