Background: In mice, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibits primordial follicle recruitment and decreases FSH sensitivity. Little is known about the role of AMH in human ovarian physiology. We hypothesize that in women AMH has a similar role in ovarian function as in mice and investigated this using a genetic approach. Methods: The association ofthe AMH Ile49Ser and the AMH type II receptor (AMHR2) -482 A > G polymorphisms with menstrual cycle characteristics was studied in a Dutch (n = 32) and a German (n = 21) cohort of normo-ovulatory women. Results: Carriers of the AMH Ser49allele had higher serum estradiol (E2) levels on menstrual cycle day 3 when compared with non-carriers in the Dutch cohort (P = 0.012) and in the combined Dutch and German cohort (P = 0.03). Carriers of the AMHR2 -482G allele also had higher follicular phase E2levels when compared with non-carriers in the Dutch cohort (P = 0.028), the German cohort (P = 0.048) and hence also the combined cohort (P = 0.012). Women carrying both AMH Ser49and AMHR2 -482G alleles had highest E2levels (P = 0.001). For both polymorphisms no association with serum AMH or FSH levels was observed. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in the AMH and AMHR2 genes are associated with follicular phase E2levels, suggesting a role for AMH in the regulation of FSH sensitivity in the human ovary.

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Keywords Anti-Müllerian hormone, Estrogen, Menstrual cycle, Ovarian function, Polymorphism
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Journal Human Reproduction
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Kevenaar, M.E, Themmen, A.P.N, Laven, J.S.E, Sonntag, B, Lie Fong, S, Uitterlinden, A.G, … Visser, J.A. (2007). Anti-Müllerian hormone and anti-Müllerian hormone type II receptor polymorphisms are associated with follicular phase estradiol levels in normo-ovulatory women. Human Reproduction, 22(6), 1547–1554. doi:10.1093/humrep/dem036