Purpose: To determine the effect of image-guided procedures (with computed tomography [CT] and electronic portal images before each treatment fraction) on target coverage in stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver patients using a stereotactic body frame (SBF) and abdominal compression. CT guidance was used to correct for day-to-day variations in the tumor's mean position in the SBF. Methods and Materials: By retrospectively evaluating 57 treatment sessions, tumor coverage, as obtained with the clinically applied CT-guided protocol, was compared with that of alternative procedures. The internal target volume-plus (ITV+) was introduced to explicitly include uncertainties in tumor delineations resulting from CT-imaging artifacts caused by residual respiratory motion. Tumor coverage was defined as the volume overlap of the ITV+, derived from a tumor delineated in a treatment CT scan, and the planning target volume. Patient stability in the SBF, after acquisition of the treatment CT scan, was evaluated by measuring the displacement of the bony anatomy in the electronic portal images relative to CT. Results: Application of our clinical protocol (with setup corrections following from manual measurements of the distances between the contours of the planning target volume and the daily clinical target volume in three orthogonal planes, multiple two-dimensional) increased the frequency of nearly full (≥99%) ITV+coverage to 77% compared with 63% without setup correction. An automated three-dimensional method further improved the frequency to 96%. Patient displacements in the SBF were generally small (≤2 mm, 1 standard deviation), but large craniocaudal displacements (maximal 7.2 mm) were occasionally observed. Conclusion: Daily, CT-assisted patient setup may substantially improve tumor coverage, especially with the automated three-dimensional procedure. In the present treatment design, patient stability in the SBF should be verified with portal imaging.

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doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.12.034, hdl.handle.net/1765/36099
International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Wunderink, W., Romero, A., Vásquez Osorio, E., de Boer, H., Brandwijk, R., Levendag, P., & Heijmen, B. (2007). Target Coverage in Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy of Liver Tumors. International Journal of Radiation: Oncology - Biology - Physics, 68(1), 282–290. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.12.034