Background: We recently developed the Amblyopia & Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) to assess the quality of life in amblyopia and/ or strabismus patients, and evaluated its content and criterion validity. The A&SQ was now validated clinically by correlating its outcome with past and current orthoptic parameters in a historic cohort of amblyopia and/or strabismus patients. Methods: The cohort was derived from all 471 patients who were treated by occlusion therapy in the Waterland Hospital in Purmerend between 1968 and 1974 and born between 1962 and 1972. All children with insufficient visual acuity from the Waterland area had been referred to a single ophthalmologist and orthoptist. Of these, 203 were traced, and 174 filled out the A&SQ. In 137 of these, binocular vision, visual acuity, and angle of strabismus were reassessed 30-35 years after occlusion therapy. These clinical parameters were correlated with the five A&SQ domains: "distance estimation", "visual disorientation", "fear of losing the better eye", "diplopia", and "social contact and cosmetic problems". Results: The current acuity at distance of the amblyopic eye and reading acuity of the amblyopic eye correlated significantly with all five A&SQ domains (significance level P = 0.01-P = 0.05). Weaker correlations were found for binocularity. In spite of the expectation that stereopsis should strongly correlate with the domain "distance estimation", and angle of strabismus with the domain "social contact and cosmetic problems", the acuity of the amblyopic eye was the overall dominant parameter. Conclusions: The adult acuity of the amblyopic eye seems the most important clinical determinant for quality of life in amblyopia and/or strabismus patients, even in domains of distance estimation, visual disorientation, and social contact and cosmetic problems, although intermediate determinants cannot be excluded.

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Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van de Graaf, E., van der Sterre, G., Kempen-du Saar, H., Simonsz-Tóth, B., & Looman, C. (2007). Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ): Clinical validation in a historic cohort. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 245(11), 1589–1595. doi:10.1007/s00417-007-0594-5