Since influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype continue to circulate in wild and domestic birds and cause an ever increasing number of human cases, it is feared that H5N1 viruses may cause the next influenza pandemic. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the development of vaccines that confer protection against infections with these viruses or ideally, protection against influenza viruses of different subtypes. For the development of broad-protective vaccines the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) may be an important target, since it has been demonstrated that CTL contribute to protective immunity and are largely directed to epitopes shared by influenza viruses of various subtypes. In the present paper, the possibility to develop (cross-reactive) CTL-inducing vaccines is discussed.,
Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Rimmelzwaan, G., Fouchier, R., & Osterhaus, A. (2007). Influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes: a correlate of protection and a basis for vaccine development. Current Opinion in Biotechnology (Vol. 18, pp. 529–536). doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2007.11.002