The present study investigated the possibility of forming a multidimensional scale for the measurement of nicotine dependence among adolescents, based on the modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ) and the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). A survey was conducted among 33 Dutch secondary schools, resulting in 2,041 smokers who completed the questionnaire. Motivation to quit and number of quit attempts were assessed and used as convergent construct variables for the construct of nicotine dependence. The findings show that combining the items of the mFTQ and the HONC results in three distinct dimensions: behavioral aspects of nicotine dependence, craving, and nervousness during abstinence. We examined this new multidimensional model in a second sample using confirmatory factor analysis. The new multidimensional measure fitted the data satisfactorily and showed good psychometric properties. Results of this study support the notion that nicotine dependence among adolescents is multidimensional.,
Nicotine & Tobacco Research
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Kleinjan, M., van den Eijnden, R., van Leeuwe, J., Otten, R., Brug, H., & Engels, R. (2007). Factorial and convergent validity of nicotine dependence measures in adolescents: Toward a multidimensional approach. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(11), 1109–1118. doi:10.1080/14622200701488459