Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with chemotherapy alone has uniformly failed in the treatment of irresectable extremity soft tissue sarcomas. The addition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) to this treatment approach contributed to a major step forward in the treatment of locally advanced extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). High response rates and limb salvage rates have been reported in multicenter trials, which combined ILP with TNF-α plus melphalan, which resulted in the approval of TNF-α for this indication in Europe in 1998. Subsequently a series of confirmatory single institution reports on the efficacy of the procedure have now been published. TNF-α has an early and a late effect; it enhances tumor-selective drug uptake during the perfusion and plays an essential role in the subsequent selective destruction of the tumor vasculature. These effects result in a high response rate in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. This induction therapy thus allows for resection of tumor remnants some 3 months after ILP and thus avoidance of limb amputation. TNF-α-based ILP is a well-established treatment to avoid amputations. It represents an important example of tumor vasculatory-modulating combination therapy and should be offered in large volume tertiary referral centers.

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Journal Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Verhoef, C, Wilt, J.H.W, Grünhagen, D.J, Geel, A.N, ten Hagen, T.L.M, & Eggermont, A.M.M. (2007). Isolated limb perfusion with melphalan and TNF-α in the treatment of extremity sarcoma. Current Treatment Options in Oncology (Vol. 8, pp. 417–427). doi:10.1007/s11864-007-0044-y