With the advent of molecular-targeted fluorescent markers, there is a renewed interest in fluorescence quantification methods that are based on continuous wave excitation and multi-spectral image acquisition. However, little is known about their in vivo quantification performance. We reviewed the performance of five selected methods by analytically describing these and varying input parameters of irradiance, excitation geometry, collection efficiency, autofluorescence, melanin content, blood volume, blood oxygenation and tissue scattering using optical properties representing those for human skin. We identified one method that corrects for variations in all parameters. This requires image acquisition before and after marker administration, under identical geometry. Hence, it is suited for applications where the site of interest can be relocated (e.g. anaesthetized animals and dermatology). For applications where relocation is not possible, we identified a second method where the uncertainty in the fluorescence signal was ±20%. Hence, use of these methods can substantially aid in vivo fluorescence quantification compared to use of the raw fluorescence signal, as this changed by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Since these methods can be computed in real-time, they are of particular interest for applications where direct feedback is critical, as diagnostic screening or image-guided surgery.

Fluorescence, Image-guided surgery, In vivo optical imaging, Quantification, Real-time
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2007.02.003, hdl.handle.net/1765/36983
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Bogaards, A, Sterenborg, H.J.C.M, & Wilson, B.C. (2007). In vivo quantification of fluorescent molecular markers in real-time: A review to evaluate the performance of five existing methods. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy (Vol. 4, pp. 170–178). doi:10.1016/j.pdpdt.2007.02.003