Several circulating or urinary tumour markers can be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of functioning and clinically non-functioning neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreatic islet cells and intestinal tract. Among the specific tumour markers are serotonin and its metabolites - e.g. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) - in carcinoid tumours and the carcinoid syndrome, insulin and its precursors or breakdown products in insulinoma, and gastrin in gastrinoma. Plasma vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP) determinations have been used in the diagnosis of VIPoma, plasma glucagon for glucagonoma, and serum somatostatin for somatostatinoma. Among the tumour-non-specific markers are: chromogranins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), α-subunits of the glycoprotein hormones, catecholamines, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), ghrelin and adrenomedullin.

5-HIAA, VIPoma, adrenomedullin, carcinoid, catecholamines, chromogranins, gastrinoma, ghrelin, glucagonoma, insulinoma, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), serotonin, somatostatinoma, α-subunits of the glycoprotein hormones
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2006.12.002, hdl.handle.net/1765/37056
Bailliere's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

de Herder, W.W. (2007). Biochemistry of neuroendocrine tumours. Bailliere's Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (Vol. 21, pp. 33–41). doi:10.1016/j.beem.2006.12.002