Biotechnology has enabled the development of specifically acting therapies for immune-mediated inflammatory disorders (IMIDs) based on biological molecules. The high species specificity precludes safety and effectivity testing in lower species (mice and rats), thus creating a need for valid experimental models in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, we review the creation of relevant NHP model(s) for multiple sclerosis (MS), an IMID of the human CNS. We will also discuss how the model(s) can help in the translation of a scientific principle developed in lower species into a therapy for MS.