In a recent paper (Waterman 1974) I discussed the debate that has been taking place, largely amongst socialists, over the role of workers and unions in Africa. I identified three major positions that have emerged. One was the traditional Communist position that the workers and unions are the leading force for national and social revolution in Africa. Another was the Fanonist thesis (as well as a common liberal one) that the regularly-employed workers and their unions are a privileged and conservative 'labour aristocracy'. The third was the new Marxist one that whilst workers and unions could not be categorised wholesale as a labour aristocracy (having considerable radical potential), such a group did exist significantly amongst them.