Current prostate-specific antigen screening practice leads to two important unwanted side effects; first of all screening induces many unnecessary prostate biopsies and secondly it leads to overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. The large amount of unnecessary prostate biopsies, as well as the overdiagnosis and overtreatment might be reduced by using prediction models. These models, using individual risk estimations, support the identification of men at increased risk for prostate cancer and the identification of potentially indolent disease after a prostate cancer diagnosis. Traditionally, urologists have not used prediction models in their standard practice. The aim of this thesis was testing a decision aid for men considering prostate-specific antigen testing and applying risk-based strategies. The data of the studies described in this thesis are the result of an active implementation of these tools.

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Keywords prediction model, prostate cancer, risk stratefication, screening
Promotor C.H. Bangma (Chris) , E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)
Sponsor The studies were sponsored by grants of the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW), the Prostate Cancer Research Foundation (SWOP) Rotterdam and Physico Foundation, the Netherlands. The printing of this thesis was financially supported by: Abbott BV, Astellas, Chipsoft BV, Coloplast BV, the Department of Public Health of the Erasmus Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Ipsen Pharmaceutica BV, J.E. Jurriaanse Stichting, Olympus Nederland BV, Sanofi-Aventis Netherlands BV, Star-MDC, Stichting Contactgroep Prostaatkanker, Stichting Urologisch Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, and Stichting Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Prostaatkanker.
ISBN 978-94-6169-298-6
Persistent URL
van Vugt, H.A. (2012, October 24). Impact of Individual Risk Assessment on Prostate Cancer Diagnosis. Retrieved from