The transition and post-transition processes in Mongolia since 1989 have brought work insecurity to Mongolia. This research aimed at understanding diverse and complex urban livelihoods which emerged after the collapse of socialism, the evolving labour market, and increased migration. Despite its age, the Harris-Todaro model of migration is still a useful framework for understanding “excessive” migration in Mongolia. In Mongolia, people have been responding demographically, economically and socially to the changes in the political and economic system. We discover Mongolia has moved from dependent socialism (on FSU/Russia) to dependent capitalism (on China) since 1989 creating new forms of macro- economic imbalance. For the research, we conducted a household survey which covers 2,145 persons aged 12 and above in three urban locations in Mongolia.

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A. Saith (Ashwani)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
ISS PhD Theses
International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)

Dashtseren, A. (2012, November 6). The Changing Nature of Work in Mongolia (1989-2003): Potential, Informal and Migrant Workers. ISS PhD Theses. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from