The immune system of higher vertebrates, such as humans, has multiple lines of defense against invading microorganisms. The first line is a physical and chemical barrier formed by the skin, mucous membranes and their secretions to prevent the entrance of microorganisms into the body.1-3 The second line consists of proteins (e.g. complement)4 and immune cells (e.g. macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer cells) which are the components of the innate immune system.5-6 Finally, the third line concerns the adaptive immune system with T and B lymphocytes specifically interacting with the invading pathogen. These cells do not only recognize pathogen with a specific antigen receptor, they also adapt their response during an infection to improve recognition of the pathogen and they generate long-term immunological memory.

B-cells, immune system
J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
The studies were financially supported by the Department of Immunology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and partly by Ter Meulen Fund - Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and Nestlé Nutrition
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Berkowska, M.A. (2012, November 28). Generation of an immunocompetent B-cell Repertoire. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from