This background paper shows trends on economic inequalities, socio-economic exclusion and insecurity, and a civic dimension of democratization. Whereas most of these variables can be considered as measures of democratic performance, the last mentioned may be more suitably seen as a civic measure of legitimization of democratization. The inequalities concern income and other labour market inequality trends. The social measures, of exclusion and insecurity, assess the extent to which people are being treated unequally, their social exclusion and the extent of insecurity they experience. Finally, the data and trends in these performance dimensions of democratization are complemented with data on a legitimization dimension of democratization, namely how people respond to these threats to democracy and development through various forms of civic action.
ISS Staff Group 3: Human Resources and Local Development , EUR-ISS-CIRI
International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)

van Staveren, I., & van der Hoeven, R. (2012). Global Trends in Labour Market Inequalities, Exclusion, Insecurity and Civic Activism. EUR-ISS-CIRI. Retrieved from