Ecuador is a prominent example of a Latin American country that has elected a left-wing president who aims to create a post-neoliberal development strategy. Many of the policies pursued by President Rafael Correa have focused on changing the relationship between nature and society. The new constitution of 2008, which grants rights to nature, adapts a new development model based on indigenous cosmology and strengthens the power and regulatory remit of the state over the economy and society, is an important statement of intent in this regard. The Yasuní-ITT (Ishpingo-Tambococha-Tiputini) initiative to leave oil underground in exchange for international financial contributions is the most significant manifestation of this intent in actual policy. Analysis of two emblematic changes reveals that the creation of a post-neoliberal development strategy has so far produced partial and uneven results. While nature and natural resources have come under stricter control by the state, this has not significantly diminished their commercialisation. © 2012 The Author. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie