Paramyxoviruses belong to the order Mononegavirales, and have a diverse host range. They have a negative-sense single stranded RNA genome of 15,000 – 19,000 nucleotides (nt), encoding 6 – 10 genes [1]. The genome is contained in a helical nucleocapsid, 18 nm in diameter and up to 1000 nm in length, which is surrounded by a lipid bilayer. The envelope is derived from the membrane of the infected cell during budding. Many animal and human paramyxoviruses have been identified, and new ones are still being detected in a wide variety of animals. Paramyxoviruses transmit from host-to-host via the respiratory route, and are responsible for significant diseases in humans and animals. The family Paramyxoviridae contains two subfamilies, the Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae. The subfamily Paramyxovirinae contains the genera Morbillivirus (including measles virus (MV), which causes measles in man), Rubulavirus (including mumps virus, which causes mumps in man), Respirovirus (including parainfluenzavirus type 3, which causes respiratory tract disease in small children) and Henipahvirus (including Hendra- and Nipah virus, which originate from bats and cause lethal outbreaks among humans following infection of intermediate hosts such as horses or pigs, respectively). The genus Avulavirus includes Newcastle disease virus (NDV), which is an important pathogen of birds causing high mortality rates and a large worldwide economic impact. The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains the genera Pneumovirus (including human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)) and Metapneumovirus (including human metapneumovirus (HMPV)). HRSV and HMPV are important causes of respiratory tract disease in children, while BRSV causes outbreaks of respiratory tract disease in calves.

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The research described in this thesis was conducted at the Erasmus MC department Viroscience, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, with financial support of ZonMW (grant number 91208012) and MRC (grant number G0801001). Furthermore, the research for this thesis was performed within the framework of the Erasmus Postgraduate School Molecular Medicine. Financial support for printing of this thesis by the following companies and foundations is gratefully acknowledged: - Erasmus University - Carl Zeiss BV - BD Biosciences - Greiner Bio-one
A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

de Vries, R. (2013, February 8). Novel Insights into Measles Pathogenesis and Immune Suppression. Retrieved from