Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement.,
Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management (ESHPM)

Grutters, J., Sculpher, M., Briggs, A. H., Severens, H., Candel, M., Stahl, J. E., … Joore, M. (2013). Acknowledging Patient Heterogeneity in Economic Evaluation. PharmacoEconomics (Vol. 31, pp. 111–123). doi:10.1007/s40273-012-0015-4