Type 2 Diabetes is a common chronic disease that results from an imbalance between the bodies insulin need and the production of insulin. It is a heterogeneous disorder in which the relative contributions of insulin resistance and defects in insulin secretion are highly variable between patients. Insulin is produced by beta cells located in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. It is a hormone with an extensive range of effects on metabolism. One of its main functions is to facilitate glucose uptake in various body tissues to allow glycogen storage. Besides a number of internal and external stimuli, the primary stimulus for insulin secretion are elevated glucose levels. When a relative lack of insulin remains untreated, this will eventually result in hyperglycaemia, i.e. diabetes. Besides short term symptoms of hyperglycaemia, the main burden of type 2 diabetes are its long term complications; retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease, which account for most of the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Worldwide type 2 diabetes is a rapidly growing health care issue, with an estimated 171 million patients worldwide in 2000 and the expectancy that this number will be more than doubled by 2030. Although many researchers in the past decennia have devoted their research to type 2 diabetes, much of the exact pathophysiology of the disease is still unknown.

E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
The Rotterdam Study is supported by the Erasmus Medical Center and Erasmus University Rotterdam; the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research; the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw); the Research Institute for Diseases in the Elderly; the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports; the European Commission; and the Municipality of Rotterdam. This study was further supported by the Centre for Medical Systems Biology (CMSB ) in the framework of the Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI). The Genome Wide Association database of the Rotterdam Study was made possible through funding from the Dutch Research Organisation NWO (nr.175.010.2005.011). The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort was financially supported by a Netherlands Heart Foundation Grant (NHS2003B165). The original DALI study was an investigator-driven study partly supported by an unrestricted grant from Parke-Davis, the Netherlands, which is now Pfizer, the Netherlands. The original Dali Study group included (in alphabetical order): Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam Department of Internal Medicine; Erasmus University Chemistry; Gaubius Laboratory TNO -KvL, Leiden; Leiden University Medical Center; University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center forGeneral Practice and Patient Oriented Research; University Medical Center Utrecht, Division of Internal Medicine. The DiaGene study group included (in alphabetical order): Catharina Hospital Eindhoven; Diagnostic Center Eindhoven, Erasmus University Medical Center; Maxima Medical Center Eindhoven. Not product-related financial support was provided by Pfizer bv, the Netherlands. Financial support for printing this thesis was kindly provided by: Erasmus University Rotterdam, Dutch Diabetes Research Foundation, J.E. Jurriaanse stichting, Daiichi Sankyo Nederland bv, Astellas pharma bv, Novo Nordisk bv, Boehringer Ingelheim bv, Novartis pharma bv, Sanofi-Aventis bv, Servier Nederland farma bv.
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

van Hoek, M. (2011, June 16). Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes: association, interaction, prediction. Erasmus University Rotterdam. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/39210