The term ‘amblyopia’ originates from the Greek language and literally means dimness or dullness of vision. In time, the condition has been defined in a variety of ways, very much depending on the prevailing patho-physiological concept about its etiology. In general, amblyopia can be defined as a unilateral or bilateral decrease in visual acuity for which no organic cause can be found on physical examination of the eye. It is caused by a refractive error (one foveal image is more blurred than the other); strabismus (ocular misalignment causing each eye to have a different image on the fovea) or, more rarely, deprivation of a clear retinal image (physical obstruction, e.g. infantile cataract, ptosis) (von Noorden 1967; 1985; von Noorden and Campos 2002). Amblyopia usually presents itself during the ophthalmological examination by the ophthalmologist or the orthoptist as a reduced visual acuity in one or both eyes, in the presence of a refractive error and/or strabismus or a deprivation. This reduced visual acuity persists after optimum correction of any refractive error (i.e. a pair of spectacles) and it cannot be explained by another ocular abnormality (e.g. retinopathy).

The research project was initiated by the Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The work described in this thesis was financially supported by the Health Research and Development Council of the Netherlands (project number 2300.0020). Financial support for the printing of this thesis was received from the Prof.dr. Henkes Stichting, Orthopad, 3M Opticlude, the Rotterdamse Vereniging Blindenbelangen and the Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
G. van Rij (Gabriel) , H.J. Simonsz (Huib)
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus MC: University Medical Center Rotterdam

Loudon, S. (2007, February 21). Improvement of therapy for amblyopia . Retrieved from